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Friday, December 23, 2016

OIL and Gas Development Company Requirement of Consultant/Advisor

Oil and Gas Development Company  looking for Consultant/Advisor


BSc/MSc in Petroleum Engineering

Age Limit 60 Years

Wednesday, December 21, 2016


              Below is the link of Field Density Excel sheet below the full procedure. This sheet contain all the formulas only you have to put the weight of moisture, Soil ,remaining sand Proctor. After this automatically the compaction will be calculated

Just click on this link and download the excel sheet of FDT test.


            Below is the link of Proctor test Excel sheet below the full procedure. This sheet contain all the formulas only you have to put the data automatically graph will form.

Just click on this link and download the excel sheet of Proctor test

Saturday, December 17, 2016

Concrete Mix Design Full procedure from Basic to High Level

Concrete Mix Design
       Concrete Mix Design is the process of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and determining their relative proportions to produce a concrete of certain minimum strength and durability as economically as possible.
       Concrete Mix designer required a great knowledge so that if there any difficulty comes he handles this problem. He must aware these essential steps which are the basics of concrete mix Design.
Here we will explain all steps step by step according to ACI 211. You should read this to clear your every point about Concrete Mix Design . Concrete Mix Design ACI 211  (Note: This process we will explain from beginning so any one who want to make concrete design first time so it can help more .
1.     Selection of Source
2.     Quality tests of  Material (Aggregate, Sand and water)
3.     Determinations of  Slump
4.     Calculation of  concrete mix design and final take batch weight
5.     Trial of Concrete Mix Design
6.     Selection of  final suitable design

1.     Selection of Source
     In this step Designer first see from where he will take material for Concrete Mix Design. He will confirm about below mentioned two points with his Project Manager or Owner of Company that from where company will take material. There are two steps
A.   Buy some near source for Concrete Mix Design.
B.   Take Material from other Company Crusher
A.    Buy some near source for Concrete Mix Design
           In this case you have to visit near companies which are working around your project to meet with their Material Engineer. You ask above out that from where they are taking material for concrete work. You have to conform about location of aggregate Source and natural sand from so he will give you the location that where the source is present. It will give you a great help otherwise it will take a great time to search this.
     Now you will visit this place with Consultant and will take simple from this place and will do quality tests for this source.

2.     Quality tests of  Material (Aggregate, Sand and water)

     After taking material from source you have to make Quality tests some test you will perform inside lab and some from independent lab. Independent lab is outside lab in the city where they have all the apparatus especially for cement, steel if your company doesn’t have apparatus you have to perform these from outside.
       List of Quality test which will you perform from inside and outside lab. The complete procedure of these tests is present in link below of each test
Inside your Company Lab

1.     Sieve analysis of course and fine aggregate
2.     Dry rodded unit weight
3.     Los Angles abrasion test
4.     Soundness of Course and fine Aggregate
5.     Specific Gravity of course and fine aggregate
6.     Thin and elongated for course aggregate
7.     Combined gradation of course aggregate
8.     Combined gradation of fine aggregate
9.     Clay lumps and friable particles
10.            Combined Specific Gravity and Absorption
Outside Independent Lab
 For these test you have to give material to independent lab they will perform all these test. After 3 days they will give result of these tests
1.     Chemical Analysis of water
2.     Petrographic examination of course aggregate
3.     Chemical analysis of course aggregate
4.     Organic impurities in fine aggregate
5.     Potential alkali reactivity chemical test method on course aggregate
6.      Potential alkali reactivity chemical test method on course aggregate
3.     Determination of maximum size of aggregate
You are making design you first determine that which will be the maximum size of aggregate. The maximum size of aggregate depends upon three factors
1.     1/5th of Narrowest dimension between sides of forums,
2.     1/3rd the depth of slab,
3.     3/4th of  spacing between reinforced bars
So you calculate this by yourself and your project manager will also help you in determining of maximum size of Aggregate.

4.     Determination of Slump
The third main important point in concrete mix design is determination of slump.

So this is the required list of slump according to your structure you will take the value of slump from this table. Suppose you structure is Reinforced foundation wall and footing in this case required slump is 75 mm. So when you will make trail in your lab in this case you see one point

That how much is the distance between from your concrete batching plant and bridge or building. If distance is of 30 minutes so when you will make trail in laboratory in concrete mixture you must bring 75mm slump after 30 minutes. So in future when your concrete mixture will go from batching plant to Bridge it will com 75mm.
 Note. Slump can be increased when chemical admixture used but provided here two cases
1.     Admixture treated concrete has lower water cement ration. Because admixture reduce amount of water so in this case we can’t use higher w/c ratio.
2.     Use limited amount of admixture so that there is no segregation potential or excessive bleeding. Normally how much dosage we will use is mentioned on admixture.

5.     Water/cement ratio

During trial in lab slump can be control by water to cement ratio. You start
Your trail from w/c  0.35 w/c
If you are making trial in lab after 30 minutes slump is coming 50 mm in this case you have to increase water to cement ratio to 0.36 if in 0.36 again slump is coming 65mm. now you have to increase your w/c 0.37 upto 0.45 or more. When you achieve slump 75mm then at this point you take simple of concrete for compressive strength for 3, 7 and 28 days. So if after 28 days strength is coming .
      When you achieve slump 75mm then at this point you take simple of concrete     for compressive strength for 3, 7 and 28 days. So if after 28 days strength is coming 100% Then you can submit your design for approval in consultant.
6.     Calculation of Concrete mix Design
For this step I will give a practical concrete mix design excel sheet which we have made in our lab so that it will give to reader a great help when he will make practical.
We will explain only one trail other trail you can do by yourself easily.

So you calculate by yourself with calculator 
These are five sheets of calculation  which excel format you can take also from me or you can take from your company Material Engineer.

Calculation Sheet No 1
In this we calculate
1. w/c ratio .
2. Water which we will get by multiplying cement with w/c ratio

Calculation Sheet No 2
In this sheet we will so calculation of
1. Estimated Strength
2. Air Content Percentage
3. Dry Rodded unit Volume of Course Aggregate
4. And weight of course Aggregate

Calculation Sheet No 3
In this sheet we will do calculation for to determine volume of
1. Cement
2. Water
3. Absolute Volume of Course Aggregate
4. Volume of Air
5. Volume of Admixture
6. Absolute Volume of Fine Aggregate
5.  Weight of Fine Aggregate

In this sheet we will adjust weight of
1. Course Aggregate
2. Fine Aggregate
3. Water
  Note ( We will adjust weight because in Aggregates has moisture and absorption so we will take value of this all after this we will get accurate weight of Course and Fine Aggregate and Water

4. At last we will get the Final weight  from aur above calculation
3/4 " Size
3/8 " Size
Fine Aggregate


Thursday, December 15, 2016

Density of Soil In-Place by the Sand Cone Method {Field Density Test (FDT)}

Density of Soil In-Place by the Sand Cone Method {Field Density Test (FDT)}

         This method of test is intended for determining the in-place density of soils. The apparatus described herein is restricted to tests in soils containing particles not larger than 50 mm (or 2 in.) in diameter.
         The principle involved is to remove a sample of soil from the area for which the in-place density value is desired, measure the volume of the hole produced and determine the mass and moisture content of the sample removed.

     Density Apparatus
                The density apparatus shall consist of a 4 liter (1 gal.) jar and a detachable appliance consisting of a cylindrical valve with an orifice 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) in diameter and having a small funnel connected to a standard G mason jar top on one end and a large funnel on the other end. The valve shall have stops to prevent rotating the valve past the completely open or completely closed positions

 Preliminary Procedure
      Determine the volume of the calibrated measure by filling with water and weighing. The temperature of the water shall be determined. The net mass of the water used to fill the measure divided by the density of the water at the test temperature equals the volume of the measure

Determine the bulk density (unit mass) of the standard sand to be used as follows

          Fill the sand cone apparatus with the standardized sand and invert the cone on the calibrated measure, open the valve at the neck of the cone and allow the sand to run freely into the measure. When the sand ceases to move in the jar, close the valve and raise the sand cone and jar vertically away from the measure. Using the straightedge, strike the sand off level with the top of the measure with as few strokes as possible. Use extreme care not to jar or shake any of the apparatus during this operation as this would tend to rearrange sand particles and provide wrong unit mass. Weigh the calibrated measure and the sand. The unit mass (bulk density) of the sand equals the mass of the sand and measure minus the mass of the measure divided by volume of measure. Repeat this process two or three times or until consistent results are obtained.

 Field Procedures
      Determine the mass of the jar and attachment up to and including the volume of the valve orifice as follows
        Place the empty apparatus upright on a firm level surface, close the valve and fill the funnel with sand.
      Open valve and, keeping funnel at least half full of sand, fill the apparatus. Close valve sharply and empty excess sand from funnel.
       Weigh the apparatus and sand, and record as mass of initial sand plus' apparatus.
     The mass determined in this procedure is constant as long as the jar and attachment are in the same relative position. If the two are to be separated match marks should be made to permit reassembly to this position.
      Determine the mass of sand required to fill the funnel as follows .
     Put sand in the apparatus and determine the mass of apparatus and sand .Seat the inverted apparatus on a clean, level, plane surface.
      Open the valve and keep open until after the sand stops running.
Close the valve sharply, weigh the apparatus with remaining sand and determine the loss of sand. This loss represents the mass of sand required to fill the funnel.
      Replace the sand removed from the jar in the funnel determination and close the valve

  Calculate the volume of the calibrated measure as follows
V1 = volume of the calibrated measure, cm3 ,
M = mass of water required to fill calibrated measure, g, and
dt = density of water at temperature of filling, g/cm3 .
Calculate the bulk density of the sand as follows

W1= bulk density of the sand, g/cm3 ,
W2 = mass of sand required to fill the calibrated measure g, and
V1 = volume of calculated measure,

Calculate the moisture content and the dry mass of material removed from the test hole as follows
 w = percentage of moisture, in material from test hole, 
W3 = moist mass of moisture sample, g. 
W4, = dry mass of moisture sample, g 
W5 = moist mass of the material from the test hole, g, and, 
W6, = dry mass of material from test hole, g

Calculate the in-place dry density of the material tested as follows:
V = volume of test hole, cm3 , 
W7 = mass of sand used g, 
W8 = mass of sand in funnel  g, and 
W = dry density of the tested material, g/cm3


Here is the down;load link for fdt test. In this sheet every formula is present. You have to only put weight of Soil , Sand and Moisture content after this automatically compaction will be calculated.



Proctor test (Moisture Density Relationship of Soil) AASHTO T 180-74


Moisture-Density Relations of Soils Using a 4.54 kg (10 lb) Rammer and a 457 mm (18 in.) Drop (
AASHTO T 180-74)

            This method of test is intended for determining the relationship between moisture content and dry density of soils when compacted according to the described procedures and equipment. For a given compactive effort, a 4.54 kg hammer dropped 457.2 mm, 56 blows per layer, each soil has a moisture content at which the dry density reaches a maximum value.
2. Apparatus 
Mold Dimensions:
    Volume: 2124 ± 21 cm3 (1/ 13.3 3 ± 0.00075 ft3 )
    Inside Diameter: 152.4 ± 0.6604 mm (6.000 ± 0.026 in.)
     Height: 116.43 ± 0.127 mm (4.584 ± 0.005 in.)
2. Rammer
    Manually Operated-Metal rammer having a flat circular face of 50.8 ± 0.127 mm (2.000 ± 0.005 in.) diameter, a wear tolerance of 0. 13 mm (0.005 in.) and a mass of 4.5359 ± 0.0081 kg (10.00 ± 0.2 lb)
3. Balances
    Balances and Scales-A balance or scale of at least 11.5 kg (25 lb) capacity and having a sensitivity and readability to 5 g (0.01 lb). Also, a balance of at least 1 kg capacity with a sensitivity and readability of 0.1 g.
4. Drying Oven-
    A thermostatically controlled drying oven capable of maintaining a temperature of 110 ± 5 C for drying moisture samples.
5.  Straightedge
   A hardened steel straightedge at least 254 mm (10 in.) in length.

6. Sieves
   50, 19.0 and 4.75 mm (2 in., 3/4 in., and No. 4, No 40, No 10, No 40, No 200)
7. Containers
     For determination of moisture content samples

       If the soil sample is damp when received from the field, dry it until it becomes friable when troweled. Drying may be in air or by use of drying apparatus such that the temperature of the samples does not exceed 60 C. Then, thoroughly break up the aggregations in such a manner as to avoid reducing the natural size of individual particles. Sieve an adequate quantity of the representative pulverized soil over the 19.0 mm (3/4 in.) sieve. Discard the coarse material, if any, retained on the 19.0 mm (3/4 in.) sieve 
   It is advisable to maintain the same percentage of coarse material passing a 50 mm (2 in.) sieve and retained on a 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve in the moisture density sample as in the original field sample, the material retained on the 19.0 mm (3/4 in.) sieve shall be replaced as follows: Sieve an adequate quantity of the representative pulverized soil over the 50 mm (2 in.) and 19.0 mm (3/4 in.) sieves. Discard the coarse material retained on the 50 mm (2 in.) sieve. Remove the material passing the 50 mm (2 in.) sieve and retained on the 19.0 mm (1/4 in.) sieve and replace it with an equal mass of material passing the 19.0 mm (3/4 in.) sieve and retained on the 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve. 
      Take the material for replacement from the remaining portion of the sample. 3.3 Select a representative sample, weighing approximately 11 kg (or 25 lb) or more

   Thoroughly mix the selected representative sample with sufficient water to dampen it to approximately four percentage points below optimum moisture content.
      Form a specimen by compacting the prepared soil in the 152 mm (or 6 in.) mold (with collar attached) in five approximately equal layers to give a total compacted depth of about 127 mm (5 in.). Compact each layer by 56 uniformly distributed blows from a rammer dropping free from a height of 457.2 mm (18 in.) above the elevation of the soil when a sleeve-type rammer is used, or from a height of 457.2 mm (18 in.) above the approximate elevation of each finally compacted layer when a stationary mounted type of rammer is used. During compaction, the mold shall rest firmly on a dense, uniform, rigid and stable foundation. A block of concrete weighing not less than 90 kg (or 200 lb) and supported by a relatively stable foundation or a sound concrete floor have been found to be satisfactory
      Following compaction, remove the extension collar, carefully trim the compacted soil even with the top of the mold by means of the straightedge, remove mold from base and weigh the mold and moist soil to the nearest 5 g (0.01 lb).

     Remove the material from the mold and slice vertically through the center. Take a representative sample of the material from one of the cut faces, weigh immediately, and dry in an oven at 110 ± 5 C for at least 12 h or to constant mass, to determine the moisture content. The moisture content sample shall weigh not less than 500 g.

    Thoroughly break up the remainder of the material until it will pass a 19.0 mm (3/4 in.) sieve and 90 percent of the soil aggregations will pass a 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve as judged by eye, and add to the remaining portion of the sample being tested. Add water in sufficient amounts to increase the moisture content of the soil sample by one or two percentage points, and repeat the above procedure for each increment of water added. Continue this series of determinations until there is either a decrease or no change in the wet unit mass, W1, per cm 3 (or ft3 ) of the compacted soil

      Calculate the moisture content, w and the dry mass of soil, W as compacted for each trial as follows
w = percentage of moisture in the specimen, 
A = mass of the container and wet soil, g, (or lbs), 
B = mass of the container and dry soil, g, (or lbs), 
C = mass of the container, g, (or lbs) 
W=dry density, g/cm3 (or pcf) of compacted soil, and 
W1=wet density, g/cm3 (or pcf) of compacted soil.


                    You can Download Excel Sheet of Proctor for your Daily submission of Test to your consultant. In this every formula is present only you have to put Required data automatically Graph will Form. 



Tuesday, December 13, 2016

Top 100 Interview Question and Answers Concrete

These are general Interview Question and Answers which every one must know before giving interview in construciton department for the job of Civil Engineer, Material Engineer, Lab Technician etc

question 1
The normal pouring temperature of concrete is
  31±2 Degree Centigrade
question 2
Shape of a particle is not important property of aggegates.



question 3
The temperature at which hydration occurs does not affect the rate of heat development.


question 4
Dislicate C2S is not most important compound in cement.

question 5
Water not fit for drinking should be used in making concrete with a Ph value of 6 to 8.


question 6
Sea water does not increase the risk of corosion of reinforcement.

question 7
Curing water should be free from substances that attack hardened concrete.


Quality of water is recommended for mixing of concrete which is fit for drinking.


question 9
Quality of water is not important property in setting of concrete.

question 10
Toughness is the resistance of aggregates to failure by impact.
question 11
Use of aggregates in concrete is not beneficial.<


question 12
Good bond increases strength of concrete.

question 13
The particle size distribution is called grading.

question 14
Natural aggregates are formed by the process of weathering and abrasion.


question 15
Setting time is used to describe the stiffening of cement paste.


question 16
Finess test is only the laboratory test to confirm quality of cement.


question 17
Cement is made from a combination of limestone, clay and gypsum.


question 18
Modulus of elasticity is denoted by E


question 19
Density is not a property of concrete.


question 20
Good concrete has to be satisfactory in its hardened state.

question 21
The heat generated by a large amount of hydrating cement may lead to cracking.


question 22
Describe work ability of concrete.
Answer:Workability is one of the physical parameters of concrete which affects the strength and durability as well as the cost of labor and appearance of the finished product. Concrete is said to be workable when it is easily placed and compacted homogeneously i.e. without bleeding or Segregation. Unworkable concrete needs more work or effort to be compacted in place, also honeycombs &/or pockets may also be visible in finished concrete.
Factors affecting workability:
  1. Water content in the concrete mix
  2. Amount of cement & its Properties
  3. Aggregate Grading (Size Distribution)
  4. Nature of Aggregate Particles (Shape, Surface Texture, Porosity etc.)
  5. Temperature of the concrete mix
  6. Humidity of the environment
  7. Mode of compaction
  8. Method of placement of concrete
  9. Method of transmission of concrete
How To improve the workability of concrete
  1. Increase water/cement ratio
  2. Increase size of aggregate
  3. Use well-rounded and smooth aggregate instead of irregular shape
  4. Increase the mixing time
  5. Increase the mixing temperature
  6. Use non-porous and saturated aggregate
  7. With addition of air-entraining mixtures

question 23
A mix has an aggregate/cement ratio of 8 and a concrete porosity 18 per cent. As suing there is no entrapped air. Calculate the water/cement ratio of a mix given that the specific gravity of aggregate is 2.7 and the degree of hydration is 92 per cent.

question 24
Expalin       a) Explain internal and external vibrators of concrete.                                                      b) What is difference between an additive and an admixture?
Answer No# 24
a)       Internal Vibrator:They are also called immersion, poker or needle vibrators. They essentially consist of a power unit and a long flexible tube at the end of which a vibrating head is attached. Power is provided by electric motor, compressed air or petrol engine. The long tube houses a flexible shaft which rotates an eccentric weight inside the vibrating head. The frequency of the vibrator is about 700 cycles per minute.
The vibrating head is inserted in the concrete. They are most effective as the vibrating head comes into intimate contact with concrete.\
External Vibrator:They are also called form vibrators. They are clamped to the formwork horizontally and vertically at suitable spacing not exceeding 90 cm in either direction. As the work progress they are shifted. They vibrate the concrete from the vibration of the forms and thus much energy is wasted.
They are used only if the use of internal vibrators is not practicable as in the case of thin and congested sections, arches and tunnel lining, etc.

b)      Additive Additives are substance which is added to cement during its manufacturing stage to get new property for cement.

Admixture:Admixtures are additions to a concrete mix that can help control the set time and other aspects of fresh concrete. Common admixtures include accelerating admixtures, retarding admixtures, fly ash, air entraining admixtures, and water-reducing admixtures.
Admixtures are used to obtain following objectives:
1.      to accelerate or retard setting and hardening.
2.      to improve workability.
3.      to increase strength.
4.      to improve durability.
5.      to decrease permeability.
6.    to impart other desired properties.

question 25
Explain       a) What are the effects of hot weather on fresh concrete?                              b) What is the effect of temperature during first 24 hours on 28 day strength of concrete?
Answer: a) Any operation of concreting done at atmospheric temperature above 400 C may be put under hot weather concreting. The effect of hot weather are.


A higher temperature of fresh concrete results in a more rapid hydration and leads to reduced workability/ accelerated setting. This reduces the handling time of concrete.


Concrete mixed, placed and cured at higher temperature normally develops higher early strength than concrete produced and cured at normal temperature but at 28 days or later the strength are generally lower.


Rapid evaporation may cause plastic shrinkage and cracking and subsequent cooling of hardened concrete would introduce tensile stresses.
Question 25

    B) During Concrete poursfirst 24 hours the required temperature of concrete is 33±2 ° c & the curing tank required temperature (where will we put cylinder of concrete) is 23±1.7 ° c. So we must follow these limits. If the temperature exceeds the required limit, then we will not achieve required 28 days strength.

question 26
a) What is shrinkage?      b) Why is the depth of cover to steel specified?

a)    Shrinkage is volumetric change in concrete due to loss of moisture content and lead to crack.
Shrinkage also causes curling/warping which can lead to a variety of slab issues including decreased load-carrying capacity (structural cracking) and joint stability problems such as spalling.

There are mainly two shrinkage

·         Drying shrinkage
·         Plastic shrinkage

The drying shrinkage is happen where harden concrete loss the moisture in hardened but drying shrinkage increase while water is added to much when making of concrete so it loss high percentage water and drying shrinkage increase.

Plastic shrinkage cracks appear in the surface of fresh concrete soon after it is placed and while it is still plastic.
These cracks appear mostly on horizontal surfaces.They are usually parallel to each other.

In plastic shrinkage the crack are appears when the water is directly losses because of high temperature.

Question 27
a) Discuss the relation between compression strength and tensile strength of concrete                                         b) Describe the role of aggregate in creep of concrete

a)  The theoretical compressive strength is to be eight times larger than the tensile strenghth. This implies a fixed relation between the two strengths. In fact there is a close relation but not a direct proportionlity the ration fo the two strenghts depends on the general level of strength of the concrete. Generally, the ratio of tensile to compressive is lower the higher the compressive strength. Thus, for example, the tensile strength increases with age at a lower rate than the compressive srength. However, there are several other factors which affect the relation between the two strengths, the main one being the method of testing the concrete in tension, the size of the specimen, the shape and surface texture of coarse aggregate, and the moisture conditin of the concrete.